The US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is led by epidemiologists world. Scientists, and physicians, is one of the most trusted sources of information during epidemics. The world is in dire need of authoritative information and the CDC has become a shadow of its former self. The CDC is now not in the forefront of a public health emergency for the first time. Since 1946 when it establish in a cramped Atlanta office.

Robert Redfield, CDC director, stood at the White House briefing rooms lectern on April 22. And admit that the US had been overwhelm by the coronavirus pandemic. Redfield was follow by President Donald Trump who said that Redfield had been totally misquote in his warning. About COVID-19 continuing to pose serious problems as the US enters its winter flu season in 2020.

Redfield was invite to clarify his statement and confirmed that he had correctly. Quoted in his opinion about the difficult, complicated times ahead. Trump tried a new approach. Trump said that You may not even see corona returning back, he stated, again contradicting the career biologist. Just so you know.

Some pundits interpreted the exchange as confirmation that the CDC’s renowned. Expertise was side line while the coronavirus continue it ravaging of the US. The New York Times report that the CDC was even bypass in data collection. Trump ordered hospitals to send COVID-19 data directly the White House.

Diminished World Role

The CDC was a hub of activity when faced with previous public health emergencies. They held regular press briefings, and develop guidance that was use by governments all over the world. The White House has almost completely erased the CDC’s role as public face for the COVID-19 pandemic response during the worst public health crisis in a century.

Former CDC leaders claim that this diminish role is evident because their scientific advice was never politicize in the past. CDC officials issued warnings as the COVID-19 crisis unfolded. However, they quickly disappeared from public view. Nancy Messonnier was director of the CDC’s National Centre for Immunization & Respiratory Diseases. She predict that the virus would not contain and would spread to other parts of the country.

The stock market crashed and Messonnier was expel from future White House press briefings. There was no CDC presence in White House press briefings about COVID-19 between March 9 and June 12. CDC made mistakes during the pandemic. This includes its initial attempts to create a COVID-19 test. The test kits were flawed, a problem that was compound by slow efforts to correct the situation and severe delays in distribution of enough tests to the general public.

Many public health professionals are still baffle at the CDC’s inexplicable silence as the pandemic continues across the globe. Howard Koh, a former US assistant secretary of health, state that they have been overlook. We need their scientific leadership now.

What Does This Mean For The Rest Of The World?

Another blow to the agency’s reputation is the fact that the CDC was not involved in collecting COVID-19 data. Instead, hospitals were ordered to transmit all COVID-19 patient information into a central Washington DC database. There will likely be a variety of knock-on effects. The new database won’t be made available to the public. This raises questions about the accuracy and transparency.

According to the Department of Health and Human Services which issued the new order the change will allow the White House’s coronavirus taskforce to allocate resources. However, epidemiologists and experts in public health around the globe fear that the new system may make it more difficult for others to track the pandemic and access information.

All countries are affected by this because the CDC provides sound, independent guidance on public health issues like infectious diseases, health living, travel, disaster preparedness, drug efficacy, and healthy living. This information can be adapted to other jurisdictions, which is crucial during a pandemic when uncertainty reigns. It is hard to remember a time when a public health emergency was cause by political pressure.

What’s Next?

Despite all the challenges inherent in dealing with a pandemic in a real-time setting, the CDC is still the most well-positioned agency in the US and the world to assist us in managing this crisis as safely and effectively as possible.

Nations should begin to think about creating their own national centres for disease control in the absence of US leadership. These discussions in Australia have been ongoing since 1990, but they are stall by lack of political will and cost. COVID-19 and the current demise of the CDC may provide the push needed to make those plans a reality.

The most beloved bird in America versus an Aussie scavenger. Here are two of the most iconic birds of prey in a battle that could rival Crocodile Dundee’s New York City clash. The wedge-tailed and North American bald Eagles. This exercise is hypothetical, so it’s important to note that this disclaimer. Wedge-tailed and Australian eagles would not encounter a wild bald eagle. Their range covers most of North America.

They can exist together in healthy numbers on both continents. They would be in fierce competition for resources, including food and nesting spots, due to their similar niches. Wedgies, Australia’s largest raptor have so few competitors that they’ve taken over the role of condors and vultures in the rest of world. Bald eagles can also hunt large prey, but their specialty is fish. Before we get into the details and possibly a diplomatic incident, let us learn more about these enormous birds of prey.

They Have A Large Fan Base

Both species are doing well, which is good news for humans as they play important roles. They remove carrion from the environment and help keep small mammals reproducing quickly under control, such as rabbits, mice, and rats.

Both are very important in Indigenous cultures on both continents. Many Aboriginal Dreaming stories in Australia include the wedge-tailed Eagle, particularly depictions Bunjil, the creator. Some even associate constellations with them. Bald eagle feathers in native North American cultures are highly valued as symbols of bravery, strength, and holiness.

Because of their sheer size, the birds are easy to recognize in their natural ranges and make great emblems. The United States’ national bird is the bald eagle, which appears on the coat of arms. The Royal Australian Air Force badge features the wedge-tailed Australian eagle as an emblem. Each country has a professional football team named after its bird: the Philadelphia Eagles in the USA and the West Coast Eagles of Australia.

Despite historical conflicts in which humans blamed birds for livestock losses, both groups still have strong fans today. Although both eagles belong to the same family Accipitridae, their relationships are not close. They are members of different genera. The wedge-tailed Eagle Aquila Audax, is part of a group often referred to as true Eagles, which also houses some of the most widely distributed eagles worldwide, such as Aquila chrysaetos the golden eagle.

Bald eagles, Haliaetus Leucocephalus, are part of the Haliaetus Genus, which is a group of predominantly fish eating birds of prey. This includes Australia’s white-bellied sea-eagle Haliaetusleucogaster. It may appear that the odds are already in your favor: What chance does a bird who eats fish for its main meal have against one that eats almost anything, alive or dead?

Close Match Bird

They are actually well-matched in terms potential fighting abilities. They weigh in at around four to five kg each, and have almost identical wingspans of between 1.8-2.3 metres. Both birds have long, strong, curving beaks that can rip apart the bones of prey. The legs and talons are what opponents should be most wary of.

Both species are able to grasp prey from the ground or water with their strong feet and transport it away to eat. Both species have no natural predators. It would be close. Let’s suppose, hypothetically, that a wedge-tailed and a bald Eagle are at the same spot at the same moment, fighting for the same prey.

The bald eagle is likely to be perched on a nearby rock face, while the wedgie will be flying high in the sky. Unassuming, poor rodent, perhaps of large size that makes it highly prized, is doing its business below. With their exceptional vision, both predators can see each other and the rodent. Eagles have the best eyesight among all vertebrates. The fight would begin with a rapid downwards dive of both predators, at 160 km per hour.

Before they hit the ground, either the rodent or the other would flap their wings to slow them down and reveal their legs. These wings would extend towards their opponent, and depending on which bird grabs them, could signify the end of the other. This would be a tough grapple, possibly even an endurance test.

What Is The Verdict?

However, I am betting on the wedge-tailed Eagle. Although wedge-tailed Eagles are similar in size to bald ones, they can kill larger prey. Bald eagles prefer small mammals and fish, but rarely attack larger prey such as racoons or beavers. Wedge-tails will eat similar-sized mammals like rabbits but they will also attack kangaroos and koalas.

This could make them more comfortable in targeting large, diverse prey. The real test that makes me decide is the strange encounters these birds have in the real world. Recent increases in the number of bald eagles mean that their range now overlaps that of the common loon in North America. This is a diving water bird with sharp beaks. Loons may be able to kill bald eagles in their quest for prey. Canada 1: USA 0.

This is not a great look for the majestic Baldie. This is similar to the wedge-tailed Eagle, which is the only bird known to attack drones and paragliders. They likely view them as threats and attempt to defend their territory. My bets on motivation and sheer braveness in taking on an opponent are placed in the hands of the wedgie.

According to two studies that I and my colleagues depths published today, humans lived in Mexico until 33,000 years ago. They may have arrived in Americas via the Pacific coast.

Many believe that the first people to reach the Americas were Asian big-game hunters who arrived in the Americas after the last Ice Age, around 13,000 years ago. This theory is call the Clovis first theory. It is based on the Clovis culture, which archaeologists have identified as having unique stone tools.

This theory accept for most of the 20th Century. Recent archaeological evidence shows that humans existed in the Americas long before Clovis. However, it is not clear how long ago this was and remains a subject of intense academic debate.

What We Discovered In Depths Chiquihuite Cave

Chiquihuite Cave, an archaeological site located at 2,740m above the sea level in Zacatecas (Mexico), is Chiquihuite Cave. The University of Zacatecas Ciprian Ardelean has been leading excavations at the site for seven years. Nearly 2,000 pieces and tools made from stone have been discover.

These tools belong to a new type of material culture that has never seen before in the Americas. There are no obvious similarities to other cultural complexes. More than 200 specimens were discover below the archaeological layer, which corresponds to the peak period of the last Ice Age. This peak is call the Last Glacial Maximum by archaeologists.

The greatest extent of ice sheets was at this time between 26,000- 19,000 years ago. The evidence from Chiquihuite Cave strongly suggests that humans existed in North America long before Clovis.

Due to the importance of the discovery, I joined a group of international researchers in studying Chiquihuite Cave. After a four-hour journey on foot, some of us were able to visit the site and witness the evidence firsthand. Our goals were to reconstruct the human environment and determine when the site was occupied.

My research at Chiquihuite Cave was primarily focus on the former. I was able to help build a chronology that included more than 50 optical and radiocarbon dates. The results, when combined with archaeological evidence, showed that humans lived in Chiquihuite as far back as 33,000 years ago. This was before the Pleistocene period end (around 12,000 years) and the cave was seal off.

Settlement Depths Patterns

In a second paper I examine the larger Depths pattern of human occupation in North America and Beringia (the ancient landbridge connecting America and Asia). This required me to analyse hundreds of dates from 42 archeological sites in North America, Beringia, and Chiquihuite Cave using a statistical tool called Bayesian-age modelling.

Analysis showed that there were people in North America prior to, during, and immediately after the peak Ice Age. It wasn’t until much later, however, that the continent saw significant population growth. This happened during the Greenland Interstadial 1 period of climate warmth at the end the Ice Age. It was trigger by a sudden increase in global temperature, which occurred around 14,700 years ago.

The three main stone tool traditions in the region were also discover to have originate around the same time. This is in line with an increase of radiocarbon dates and archaeological sites at those sites as well as genetic data that points to a marked increase in population

Dramatic Decline Of Megafauna

The dramatic decline of megafauna large and small, including horses, camels, and mammoths, may have been caused by the rapid expansion of humans in a warmer time. We plotted the dates when the megafauna disappeared and discovered that they vanished in a colder period.

The contribution of climate change to faunal extinctions (represented by rapid warming and cooling) cannot be completely excluded. Although the first human arrivals to the continent came from eastern Eurasia it appears that there was an early movement.

The coast is where we believe the route of the earlier arrivals to these new lands was. The possibility of inland travel being blocked would be due to Beringia’s partial submersion or the impassibility of the ice sheets that covered modern-day Canada.

The results of both studies and the combined study are different from previous models and reveal a new story about the origins of American settlement. This is a fascinating and controversial journey that marks one of the largest expansions of modern humankind across the globe.